How to Achieve Hajj Mabroor?by Ustazah Eka Budhi Setiani
As a faithful Muslim, naturally we would have the desire to fulfill all the pillars of Islam. Including the 5th pillar of Islam, performing the obligations of pilgrimage (Hajj) worship for people who have been able to fulfill all the requirements.
There are various verses that explain the obligation to perform the pilgrimage. Some of them are as follows:
فِيهِ ءَايَٰتُۢ بَيِّنَٰتٞ مَّقَامُ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُۥ كَانَ ءَامِنٗاۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ حِجُّ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ مَنِ ٱسۡتَطَاعَ إِلَيۡهِ سَبِيلٗاۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ . (آل عمران:97)
“In it are clear signs and the standing-place of Abraham. Whoever enters it should be safe. Pilgrimage to this House is an obligation by Allah upon whoever is able among the people. And whoever disbelieves, then surely Allah is not in need of ‘any of His’ creation.”
[Surah Ali Imran 3:97]
وَاَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّٰهِ (البقرة:196)
“And complete the Hajj or umrah in the name of Allah.”
[Surah Al-Baqarah 2:196]
Not only in the verses of the Qur’an, several hadiths also explain the obligations of the pilgrimage. Going for Hajj can also be interpreted as jihad in the way of Allah; devotes wealth, energy, time, mind, and even willingness to leave the family and country to the Al-Haram, Mecca to fulfill His call.
يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، نَرَى الْجِهَادَ أَفْضَلَ الْعَمَلِ ، أَفَلاَ نُجَاهِدُ قَالَ « لاَ ، لَكِنَّ أَفْضَلَ الْجِهَادِ حَجٌّ مَبْرُورٌ
“Oh Messenger of Allah, we consider Jihad as the most afdal (best) of deeds. Does that mean we have to do jihad?” “No. The most important jihad is Hajj Mabroor (Hajj performed according to the traditions of the Prophet and accepted by Allah).” said the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.
A hadith narrated by Bukhari also explains the reward for those who have performed the pilgrimage and getting the title of Hajj mabroor.
الْحَجَّةُ الْمَبْرُورَةُ لَيْسَ لَهُ جَزَاءٌ إِلَّا الْجَنَّةُ
“There shall be no reward for a Hajj Mabroor (an accepted Hajj) except Jannah (the Paradise).”
What is Hajj Mabroor?
Without doubt, we will try to become a Hajj mabroor when we get the chance to set our foot in the Holy Land, Mecca to perform the pilgrimage. But, what is the real meaning of Hajj mabroor?
The terms of Hajj mabroor in terminology means it is an accepted pilgrimage by Allah SWT. Hajj mabroor is a pilgrimage that is conducted in accordance with the instructions of Allah and His Messenger. This can be achieved by observing various provisions, pillars, and obligatory acts, as well as avoiding things that are prohibited solely on the impulse of faith and hope for the pleasure of Allah SWT. Furthermore, there are many scholars opinions about the definition of mabroor.
First, the Hajj mabroor is a pure pilgrimage which is not mixed with disobedience. Because the term “al-mabrur” is taken from the word al-birr which means obedience. In other words, the Hajj mabroor is a pilgrimage that is conducted with full obedience that is not mixed with sin in it.
According to Muhyiddin Syarf an-Nawawi or known as Imam Nawawi, this opinion is considered as the most valid (sahih) opinion.
قَالَ النَّوَوِيّ مَعْنَاهُ أَنَّهُ لَا يَقْتَصِر لِصَاحِبِهَا مِنْ الْجَزَاء عَلَى تَكْفِير بَعْض ذُنُوبه لَا بُدّ أَنْ يَدْخُل الْجَنَّة قَالَ : وَالْأَصَحّ الْأَشْهَر أَنَّ الْحَجّ الْمَبْرُور الَّذِي لَا يُخَالِطهُ إِثْم مَأْخُوذ مِنْ الْبِرّ وَهُوَ الطَّاعَة
“According to Muhyiddin Syarf an-Nawawi, the meaning of the hadith ‘There is no reward for the Hajj mabroor except heaven’ is that the reward for people with Hajj mabroor is not only limited to the elimination of some sins. Because Mabroor is what makes someone be able to enter heaven. Imam Nawawi said, “The most valid and well-known is that the Hajj mabroor which is clean from sin is taken from al-birr (goodness) that is obedience.” (Jalaluddin as-Suyuthi, Syarhus Suyuthi li Sunan an-Nasa’i, Halb-Maktab al-Mathbu’at al-Islamiyyah, 2nd print, 1406 H/1986 H, juz, V, p. 112).
Secondly, the Hajj mabroor is a maqbul hajj (accepted Hajj) and is rewarded with al-birr (goodness). The proof of Maqbul or Hajj mabroor is when someone becomes a better person than before they perform Hajj and they don’t repeat immoral acts/sin or all the things forbidden by Him.
وَقِيلَ : هُوَ الْمَقْبُولُ الْمُقَابَلُ بِالْبِرِّ وَهُوَ الثَّوَابُ، وَمِنْ عَلَامَةِ الْقَبُولِ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ خَيْرًا مِمَّا كَانَ وَلَا يُعَاوِد الْمَعَاصِي
“There is an opinion that says: Hajj mabroor is an accepted pilgrimage that is rewarded with goodness or merit. While the sign of acceptance of a person’s Hajj is to return to their homeland as a better person than before and they do not repeat the disobedience.” (Jalaluddin as-Suyuthi, Syarhus Suyuthi li Sunan an-Nasa’i, juz, V, p. 112).
Third, Hajj mabroor is a pilgrimage that does not have riya’ (showing off or insincere) and not accompanied by disobedience.
وَقِيلَ هُوَ الَّذِي لَا رِيَاءَ فِيهِ وَقِيلَ : هُوَ الَّذِي لَا يَتَعَقَّبهُ مَعْصِيَةٌ وَهُمَا دَاخِلَانِ فِيمَا قَبْلهُمَا
“Some scholars say that the Hajj mabroor is a pilgrimage that does not have an element of riya’ in it. There are other scholars who say that the Hajj mabroor is one that is not accompanied by disobedience. These two views include into the category of the former view.” (Jalaluddin as-Suyuthi, Syarhus Suyuthi li Sunan an-Nasa’i, juz, V, p. 112).
If we look closely, each opinion is related to one another.
The point is, the Hajj mabroor is a pilgrimage that is performed with its various conditions as perfect as possible. Al-Qurtubi concluded this:
قَالَ الْقُرْطُبِيُّ : الْأَقْوَالُ الَّتِي ذُكِرَتْ فِي تَفْسِيرِهِ مُتَقَارِبَةٌ وَأَنَّهُ الْحَجُّ الَّذِي وُفَّتْ أَحْكَامُه وَوَقَعَ مَوْقِعًا لِمَا طُلِبَ مِنْ الْمُكَلَّف عَلَى وَجْهِ الْأَكْمَلِ
“Al-Qurtubi said: ‘The various opinions regarding the explanation of the Hajj mabroor that have been put forward are close to each other. In conclusion, the Hajj mabroor is a pilgrimage that has fulfilled all its provisions and is performed as perfectly as possible by the pilgrim (mukallaf) as required of him.” (Jalaluddin as-Suyuthi, Syarhus Suyuthi li Sunan an-Nasa’i, juz, V, p. 112).
Signs of Hajj Mabroor
Referring to the explanations above, one of the signs of a Hajj mabroor is that someone becomes a better person than before.
Rasulullah ﷺ once told the characteristics of people who get the title of Hajj mabroor. There is a marfu’ hadith (attributed to Rasulullah ﷺ) and it has many shawahid (witnesses), even predicated as Sahihul Isnad by Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak book.
As quoted by Imam Badrudin Al-Aini in his Umdatul Qari.
سئل النبي ما بر الحج قال إطعام الطعام وطيب الكلام وقال صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه
“The Messenger of Allah was asked about the Mabroor Hajj. Rasulullah ﷺ then said, ‘Give food and be polite in speech.’ Al-Hakim said that this hadith is sahih (authentic) but not narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.”
عن أبي هريرة قالَ: سَمِعْتُ رسُولَ اللَّهِ ﷺ يَقولُ: منْ حجَّ فَلَم يرْفُثْ، وَلَم يفْسُقْ، رجَع كَيَومِ ولَدتْهُ أُمُّهُ. متفقٌ عَلَيْهِ
“Whoever performs Hajj and therein utters no word of evil, nor commits any evil deed, shall return from it as the day his mother gave birth to him.”
If we look at the various explanations above, some of the characteristics that indicates a person’s Hajj mabroor are as follows:
- Speaking politely (thayyibul kalam).
- Spreading peace (ifsta us salam).
- Having social concerns, such as helping hungry people fill their needs (ith‘amut tha‘am).
- Having praiseworthy morals.
- Increasing piety.
From the characteristics above, it can be concluded that the mabroor predicate achieved by a person who has performed the pilgrimage does not only have a positive impact on that person. But verily, it also has a major impact on others.
And it is not only related to the increase of worship, both mahdhah and ghairu mahdhah, but also related to the person’s moral and social life.
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Contributed by Eka Budhi Setiani
Ustadzah Eka Budhi Setiani, Lc is one of the sharia advisors at Muslim Pro. A servant of Allah who studies the science of Usuluddin at Al-Azhar University – Cairo, Egypt. Currently she is devoting her knowledge by teaching at an Islamic school managed by the Education Department in a province. In addition, together with her husband, now she also manages her own Islamic boarding school in a small town in Banten Province called Ponpes Balonk Faidhul Barokaat.